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qn^wh qy qn^whIey : prMprw qy ieiqhws

jd AsIN sRI Akwl q^q swihbqoN smyN-smyN jwrI hoey hukmnwimAW, AwdySw qy &YsilAW ’qy nzr mwrdy hW qW bhuq swry hukmnwmy qy AwdyS qn^whIey krwr dyx, pMQ ’coN ^wrj krn, qn^wh lwaux Awid sMbMDI imldy hn[ jykr AsIN ieiqhws ’qy JwqI mwrIey qW bhuq swry ieiqhwsk hvwly imldy hn, ijnHW ivc guris`K AKvwaux vwilAW nMU smyN-smyN qn^whIey krwr id`qw igAw qy iPr smW Awaux ’qy aunHW nMU qn^wh vI lweI geI[
pMQ-GwqI, bymuK, gurU inMdk, kuVImwr pMQ nwl twkrw krn vwly, pwKMfI gurU, pMQk mirAwdw qoVn vwly, pMQ ‘’coN ^wrj qy guris`KI isDWqW qoN igr c`uikAW nwl imlx vwly qn^whIey krwr id`qy jWdy rhy, ieh ‘gurU-pMQ dw ivDwn qy prMprw hY[
is`K rihq mirAwdw ivru`D krm-Drm dMf dw nwauN ‘qn^wh’ hY, jo is`K rihq dy inXm BMg krdw hY, auh ‘qn^whIAw’ s`dIdw hY[ ies Sbd dw mUl ieh hY, ik ijs vyly pMjwb dy muslmwn hwkmW ny Amn kwiem krn leI is`KW nwl zwihr myl kr ilAw Aqy ikqny is`KW nMU mwkUl qn^wh dy ky nOkr r`K ilAw, qd AxKIly isMGW ny Awpxy BweIAW dw ieh krm iGRxw Xog jwx nOkr is`KW dI A`l ‘qn^whIey’ Qwp id`qw[ kuJ smW pw ky Drm Aqy mirAwdw dy ivru`D krm krn vwly dw nwm ‘qn^whIAw’ p`k igAw[1
BweI kwnH isMG dy aukq ivcwr Anuswr muslmwnW dI nOkrI krn qy qn^wh lYx nwl qn^whIAw AKvwieAw[ ies qoN iek g`l spS`t hY ik ‘gurU-pirvwr’ nwloN tu`t ky iksy gYr dI nOkrI krnI niKD krm hY, pr ‘qn^wh’ dI iprq qW hor vI purwxI hY, ijs bwry AsIN ivcwr krWgy[
qn^wh dw smArQI Sbd qlb, drmwhw, mwhvwrI, py Awid imldy hn[ pr gurmiq ivcwrDwrw ivc qn^wh dw ArQ Drm dMf, Drm AnuswrI lweI hoeI c`tI, ^wlsw Drm ivru`D kr pwqkI, Drm dMf dw AiDkwrI2 qn^whIAw hY[ ^wlsw Drm dy inXmW Anuswr jQybMdI ivc iek-sUq proey rihxw, rihq ivc koeI Bu`l ho jwvy qW ^wlsy dy dIvwn ivc hwzr ho ky bynqI kr ky qn^wh b^swayxI[ is`K rihq mirAwdw Anuswr qn^whIey ieh hn :
(1) mIxy (ienHW iv`coN ijhVy AMimRq Ck ky pMQ ivc iml jwx, auhnW nwl vrqxw TIk hY), msMd, DIrm`lIey, rwmrweIey, Awidk pMQk ivroDIAW nwl jW nVImwr, kuVImwr, isrguMm nwl vrqxw (vrqx qoN Bwv rotI-bytI dI sWJ hY, ijs dw spS`t ArQ irsqw-nwqw krky brwdrI dw sMbMD pYdw krnw hY[ gurU swihb dw Bwv pMQ nMU iek kr ky r`Kxw sI, qW ik v`Kry v`Kry gurAweI dy sYNtr jW imlgoBw is`KI dy A`fy nw bxn) vwlw qn^whIAw ho jWdw hY[
(2) by-AMimRqIey jW piqq dw jUTw Kwx vwlw[
(3) dwhVw rMgx vwlw[
(4) pu`qr jW DI dw swk mu`l lY ky jW dy ky krn vwlw[
(5) koeI nSw (BMg, APIm, Srwb, posq, kukIn Awid) vrqx vwlw[
(6) gurmiq dy ivru`D koeI sMskwr krn krwaux vwlw[
(7) rihq ivc koeI Bu`l krn vwlw[3
is`K rihq mirAwdw dy aukq 7 nukiqAW ivcoN iksy iek nMU vI krn vwlw ‘gurU pMQ’ dw qn^whIAw hY[ ienHW nukiqAW ivc is`K Drm Aqy smwj nwl sMbMDq hryk p`K nMU Swml kIqw igAw hY[ jUn, 1978 ivc sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN hoey hukmnwimAW qoN bwAd ‘inrMkwrI i&rkw’ pMQ ivroDIAW ivc Swml hY[ ies krky ienHW nwl imlvrqx r`Kx vwlw qn^whIAw ho jWdw hY[ mnu`K Bu`lxhwr hY, Bu`l iksy vI guris`K pwsoN ho skdI hY, ies leI ‘gurU-pMQ’ ny qn^wh lwaux dw ivDwn inSicq kr id`qw :
(1) ijs iksy is`K pwsoN rihq dI koeI Bu`l ho jwvy qW auh nyVy hI gur-sMgq pws hwzr hovy Aqy sMgq dy snmuK KVo ky AwpxI Bu`l mMny[
(2) gur-sMgq ’coN sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dI hzUrI ivc ‘pMj ipAwry’ cuxy jwx, jo pyS hoey s`jx dI Bu`l nMU ivcwr ky gur-sMgq pws qn^wh qjvIz krn[
(3) sMgq nMU b^sx vyly hT nhIN krnw cwhIdw, nw hI qn^wh luAwaux vwly nMU dMf Brn ivc AVI krnI cwhIdI hY[ qn^wh iksy iksm dI syvw, ^ws krky jo h`QW nwl kIqI jw sky, lwauxI cwhIdI hY[4
is`K rihq mirAwdw dI ‘qn^wh lwaux dI ivDI’ sMbMDI nukiqAW qoN sp`St hY ik ‘qn^wh’ guris`K dy ivAkqIgq jIvn ivc ‘gurmiq mirAwdw’ dy ivru`D jwxy-Axjwxy hoey gunwh dI Dwrimk szw hY, jo guris`K nyVy dI gur-sMgq ivc hwzr ho ky ^ud lvwauNdw hY[ pr jykr guris`K sdvwaux vwlw Aijhw kukrm kr bYTy, ijs dw sMbMD ‘gurU-pMQ’ jW smu`cy is`K smwj nwl hovy Aqy Awpxy v`loN hoeI Bu`l nMU b^Swaux leI sMgq pws Awp hwzr nw hovy qW ‘gurU-pQ’ dy ivDwn Anuswr aus nMU iksy q^q qoN ^ws krky sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN qn^whIAw krwr id`qw jWdw hY[ qn^whIAw krwr dyx qoN ip`CoN vI jykr Aijhw is`K AwpxI Bu`l leI ‘q^q’ ’qy pMjW ipAirAW dy snmuK Awpxy Awp nMU pyS nhI krdw qW ‘pMj ipAwry’ ‘gurU-pMQ’ dy pRqIinD hox krky Aijhy ivAkqI nMU pMQ ivcoN ^wrj kr idMdy hn[ jykr ieiqhwsk qOr ’qy vyiKAw jwvy qW mIxy, msMd, DIrm`lIey, rwmrweIey, inrMkwrI smu`cy rUp ivc pMQ ivcoN ^wrj kIqy gey hn, ijs krky ienHW ‘pMQ ivroDIAW’ nwl vrqxw pMQk mirAwdw dI aulMGxw hY[ pMQk aulMGxw krn vwilAW nMU smyN-smyN qn^whIey krwr id`qw igAw qy auh dyr-svyr qn^wh lvwaux leI ‘gurU-pMQ’ dy srva~c AsQwn sRI Akwl q^q sihb ’qy pyS ho ky qn^wh lgvwauNdy rhy[ ieh koeI nvIN iprq nhIN, sgoN ieh qW pMQk prMprw hY, ijs dIAW bhuq swrIAW audwhrxW swnMU gurU-kwl qy is`K ieiqhws ivcoN pRwpq huMdIAW hn[
iek g`l Pyr sp`St krnI zrUrI hY ik qn^wh lwaux qoN Bwv hY ik jwxy-Axjwxy hoeI Bu`l dubwrw nw hovy[ qn^wh lwaux nwl dUsry DrmI BrwvW nMU nsIhq imldI hY[
qn^wh lwaux l`igAW iksy qrHW vI p`Kpwq mhIN krnw cwhIdw, ‘gurU-pMQ’ dw ibrd hY ik guris`K pwsoN hoeI Dwrimk, smwijk iFilAweI dUr kr ky cVHdI klw dw jIvn pRdwn krnw[
ieiqhwsk qOr ’qy AsIN dyKdy hW ik gurU Arjn dyv jI dy drbwrI rwgI BweI s`qw qy blvMf iksy kwrn gurU-Gr qoN AwkI ho gey qW gurU jI ny AwdyS kr id`qw ik koeI is`K aunHW nMU mUMh nw lwvy[ bhuq smW ies qrHW hI irhw, pr A^Ir BweI l`Dw jI praupkwrI ny ‘s`qw-blvMf’ nMU gurU-Gr qoN mw&I duAweI[ gurU-Gr qoN Bu`l b^Swaux ’qy ausy hI ‘s`qy-blvMfy’ dI rcnw nMU sRI gurU gRMQ swihb ivc Swml kr ky, gurU Arjn dyv jI ny sdw leI mwx siqkwr b^S id`qw[
ipRQIey ip`Cy l`gx vwly gurU-Gr dy ivroDI ‘mIxy’ khwey qy pMQ ’coN Cyky gey[ isMG swihb pRo: mnjIq isMG jI dy kQn Anuswr, rwmrwie nMU sMgq vloN dMf imilAw[ sRI gurU hirrwie swihb dy v`fy pu`qr ‘rwmrwie’ ny gurU-hukm dI ‘bUtw isMG’ vWg aulMGxw kIqI sI[ aus nMU smyN dy hwkmW dy BYA Aqy aunHW v`loN id`qy lwlcW ny mdhoS kr id`qw sI Aqy auh gurU swihb vloN imlIAW byAMq rUhwnI SkqIAW dy bwvjUd ‘gurU’ qoN bymuK ho igAw[ gurU swihb ny vI AwdyS dy id`qw ik swfy m`Qy nw l`gIN[ ieh iv`Q iek lmW Arsw bxI rhI[ pr AwKr nMU rwmrwie dI Awqmw ny vI aus nMU JMjoV ky mjbUr kr id`qw Aqy aus ny gurU goibMd isMG pwqSwh kol AwpxIAW Bu`lW b^Swaux leI bynqI-p`qr Awpxy bMidAW rwhIN ByijAw, ijs nMU klgIDr ipqw ny Srn Awey dI lwj r`Kx vwsqy pRvwn kr ilAw[ sRI pwauNtw swihb qoN c`l ky jnnw dy qt ’qy byVI ivc dohW dI mulwkwq hoeI Aqy gurU swihb vloN AwpxIAW swrIAW Bu`lW b^Svw ky rwmrwie gurU drbwr ivc sur^rU ho igAw[
gurU-Gr dy pRqIinD AKvwaux vwly ‘msMd’, jdoN a~c Dwrimk jIvn dy DwrnI nhIN rhy qW gurU goibMd isMG jI mhwrwj ny ^ud hukmnwmy jwrI kr ky ‘msMdW’ nMU pMQ ivcoN ^wrj kridAW guris`KW nMU aunHW nwl imlvrqx qoN s^qI nwl roikAw[ ies sMbMDI gurU goibMd isMG jI dw hukmnwmw dyKxXog hY :
dsvyN gurU goibMd isMG jI vloN sMgiq nauShry kI Xogu P`gx 10, 1758 ib: 6 &rvrI, 1702… srbq sMgq myrw Kwlsw hY, sMgiq msMd-msMdIE nwl nhIN imlxw … jo is`K imly so myl lYxw hor idkiq koeI nwhIN krnI ipAwr krxw, myrI ^uSI hY …[6
gurU goibMd isMG jI ny bu`qpRsqI, mVHIAW, mswxW, kbrW, smwDW dy pujx qoN guris`KW nMU s^qI nwl vrijAw[ pr jd gurU jI d`Kx nMU jWdy hoey sMmq 1764 nMU dwdU dvwry phuMcy, ies bwry ieiqhws ivc kQw hY, ik gurU swihb ny kmwx dy goSy nwl dwdU jI dI smwD nMU pRxwm kIqw, ijs pr ^wlsy ny mVHI nMU nmskwr krn dy AprwD ivc dsmyS nMU qn^whIAw ThrwieAw[ klgIDr ny &urmwieAw ik AsIN ieh krm ^wlsy dI pRIiKAw leI kIqw sI Aqy pRsMnqw nwl Drm dMf (qn^wh) dy ky A`gy nMU Su`B rIq qorI[7
sO swKI ivc ies Gtnw nMU ivsQwr sihq drj kIqw igAw :

d`Kx jWdy gur gey dwdU duAwr sMbUh[
Dry kmwn illwr mYN, isK ibsmwey rUh[ …
(m`Qy ’qy kmwx lw ky nmskwr kIqI)
Juky hsy qb Kwlsy pUCw ieh ivrqMq[
isK ipAwsy vcn ky AbY pUCqy mMq[
qumrw kihnw isK ko mVHI mswn n mwn[
Awpu ABul jo Bul pry iehu AcMBw jwn[
h`s boly pRBu dXwl jI hm qnKwhI hoqu[
gurU Kwlsw soie gurU iehu bwxI sMkyq[
pWc sO kI Byt dy pRB jI isK qnKwih[
hm dInI jo dyie nih iqskI pMUjI suAwh ]96]8

Asl ivc ‘gurU-pMQ’ v`loN lweI qn^wh pUrI kr ky guris`K Awpxy Awp nMU BwgSwlI smJdw hY[ guris`K qn^wh pUrI kr ky pMQ dw ipAwr pRwpq krdw hY qy svYmwx nwl gurU pirvwr dw mYNbr bx ky jIvn jIauNdw hY[ qn^wh lvwauxI ‘gurU-pMQ’ pRqI guris`K dI smrpx Bwvnw dI lKwiek hY[
ijvyN ik AsIN au~pr ivcwr kr cu`ky hW ik pMjwb ’cAmn kwiem krn leI muslmwn hwkmW ny bhuq swry is`KW nMU ‘qn^whW’ dy ky Awpxy nwl Swml kr ilAw ijhVy ‘gurU-pMQ dy qn^whIey khwey[ ienHW ivcoN swnMU iek pRmu`K audwhrx imldI hY, sR: subyg isMG dI, jo lwhOr drbwr ivc srkwrI Tykydwr bx igAw[ jd subyg isMG lwhOr drbwr v`loN nvwbI qy i^lq lY ky ‘Kwlsw pMQ’ pws phuMcy qW sB qoN pihlw aus nMU qn^wh lweI geI, nvwbI kbUl krn jW nw krn dw &Yslw bwAd ivc kIqw igAw[ ieiqhwsk vwikAwq hY :

ijm subyg isMG iFg Juk AwvY, krY kuMns AO sIs JukwvY[
dyK Kwlsw hoie pRsMn, khY Kwlsw A`gXoN DMn ]28]
Fuk iFg su rhXo Kloie, lwie qnKwh Ab bKsIey moih[
hY Kwlso sb bKsn jogu, hm qnKwhI GrbwrI log ]29]
huie pRsMn bc KwlsY kIXo, lwie qnKwih bKsn kih dIXo[
KwlsY hukm kIX pMj BujMgn, qnKwh mnwie bKsXo Bl rMgn ]30]9

ies qrHW subyg isMG nMU ‘pMj isMGW’ ny qn^wh lw ky ‘Kwlsw pMQ’ ivc Swml kr ilAw[ iehI srdwr subyg isMG bwAd ivc Awpxy spu`qr Swhbwz isMG nwl lwhOr crKVI cVH ShId ho, Awpxy pMQk ipAwr, guris`KI jIvn dI imswl kwiem kr igAw[
j`sw isMG iecoigl nMU (jo ip`Cy rwmgVHIAw dy nW nwl mShUr hoieAw) iek mwsUm b`cI nMU mwr dyx dy doS ivc is`K kOm ny brwdrI ivcoN ^wrj kIqw hoieAw sI qy aus ny AdInw byg dI nOkrI kr leI sI[ rwmrOxI dy Gyry smyN aus ny iek sunyhw iklHy dy AMdr ByijAw Aqy Drm BrwvW nMU bynqI kIqI ik aus nMU mw& kr dyx Aqy aus nMU muV Awpxy ivc Swml kr lYx[10
sRI gurU pMQ pRkwS dy krqw BweI rqn isMG BMgU ny ies mwmly nMU ies qrHW klmbMd kIqw hY :

isMG qRKwn j`sw isMG joie, dInoN isMGn Cyk Qo soie[
so Awey dInw byg pYr hw, isMG sYNkro aus sMg Ahw ]45]
qo isMG XO Ab bcn aucwry, hm BI mrY su isMGn nwry (nwly)[
jy qum hm ko lyvo myl, Awie rlYN hm qumrI gYl ]46]
… … …
hm BI rlYNgy Kwlsy nwl, Kwlsy tUtI-gMFn-vwl ]11

aukq audwhrxW qoN sp`St huMdw hY ik gurmiq mirAwdw dw aulMGx krn vwilAW nMU qn^whIey krwr dyxw, jykr qn^wh nw lgwvy qW pMQ ivcoN Cyk dyx dI blvwn pMQk prMprw rhI hY[ aukq kuJ iek hvwilAW qoN swnMU ieh vI syD imldI hY ik ‘^wlsw pMQ’ jW ‘gurU-pMQ’ ivc sB brwbr BweI BweI hn, jykr koeI vI pMQk kwnMUn dI aulMGxw krdw hY qW aus nMU Drm dMf qn^wh lweI jWdI hY, iPr pMQ ivc Swml kIqw jWdw hY[
qn^wh sMgq dy joVy JwVn, lMgr dy jUTy brqn sw^ krn, gurbwxI dw inqnym qoN ielwvw pwT krnw, pMQk kwrjW leI mwieAw, JwVU dyx Awid iksy iksm dI vI gurmiq ivDwn Anuswr ho skdI hY[ jykr ies p`K qoN dyKIey qW msMdW nMU pMQ ’coN Cykx, gurU goibMd isMG v`loN mohrW Byt krn, mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG nMU koVy mwrn, krqwr isMG bydI nMU 1924 eI: ivc sRI AMimRqsr qoN nMgy pYrIN c`l ky ‘nnkwxw swihb’ jwx Aqy 10,000/- rupey pMQk kwrjW leI dyx Aqy pMj AKMf pwT krwaux vrgI qn^wh vI ho skdI hY[
vrqmwn smyN vI AsIN dyiKAw hY ik sR: surjIq isMG brnwlw, sR: bUtw isMG nMU kw&I lMmI Dwrimk qn^wh qy gl ivc Bu`l dw Aihsws krvwaux leI ‘q^qI’ pweI geI[ sR: Avqwr isMG ihq nMU pMQk kwrj leI iqMn QwvW ’qy iek`qI iek`qI hzwr rupey mwieAw jmHW krwaux qy hor AnykW nMU lMgr dy BWfy mWjx, sMgqW dy joVy JwVn, bwxI dw pwT krn, sRI hirmMdr swihb dI prkrmw sw& krn sMbMDI qn^whW l`gIAW[ Xqn kIqw hY ik Aijhy swry &Ysly ies ivc Swml ho skx qW jo guris`K ienHW &YsilAW qoN pRyrxw auqSwh pRwpq kr, guris`KI jIvn jIaux qy ‘gurU-pMQ’ dw pMQk nwhrw swkwr kr skx :

sRI Akwl purK ky bcm isaNu, pRgitE pMQ mhwn[
‘gurU-pMQ’ gurU mWnIey, qwry skl kulwn[12

(1) BweI kwnH isMG nwBw, gurmiq mwrqMf, pMnw 542. (2) auhI, mhwn koS, pMnw 420. (3) is`K rihq mirAwdw, pMnw 31. (4) auhI, pMny 31-32. (5) isMG swihb pRo: mnjIq isMG jI, gurmiq pRkwS, mwrc 1994, pMnw 15. (6) Fw: gMfw isMG, hukmnwmy, pMnw 176. (7) BweI kwnH isMG nwBw, mhwn koS, pMnw 628. (8) ipAwrw isMG pdm, pRcIn sO swKI, pMny 229-30. (9) fw: jIq isMG sIql, (sMpw.) sRI gurU pMQ pRkwS, pMnw 284. (10) fw: gMfw isMG qyjw isMG, is`K ieiqhws, pMny 159-60. (11) fw: jIq isMG sIql, (sMpw.) sRI gurU pMQ pRkwS, pMnw 284. (12) pRo: ipAwrw isMG pdm, rihqnwmy, pMnw 73.

pusqk ‘hukmnwmy AwdyS sMdyS… sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ ivcoN DMnvwid sihq[