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sRI Akwl q^q swihb : hukmnwmy

sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI kwrjSIlqw do ivSyS rUpW ivc pRgt huMdI hY[ pihlI ik sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy hr AYqvwr qy bu`Dvwr Aqy ivSyS gurpurbW smyN AMimRq-AiBlwKIAW vwsqy AMimRq dw bwtw iqAwr huMdw hY, ijs nwl auh gurU prIvwr dy mYNbr bxdy hn[ ies p`K qoN sRI Akwl q^q swihb inrMqr kwrjSIl hY Aqy l`KW dI igxqI ivc pRwxI AMimRq dI dwq pRwpq kr, guris`KI jIvn jIA rhy hn[
dUsrw p`K hY, ik sRI Akwl q^q swihb ‘gurU-pMQ’ dI pRqIinD sMsQw hox krky smyN-smyN gurmiq ivDI ivDwn Anuswr hukmnwmy, AwdyS qy pMQk &Ysly krdw irhw[
ieh ieiqhwsk s`c hY ik gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI ny sRI Akwl q^wq swihb dI isrjxw kr ky, is`KW pRqI sMq-ispwhI bxn, cMgy GoVy, hiQAwr qy juAwnIAW Byt krn dw hukmnwmw jwrI kIqw[
sB qoN pihlw hukmnwmw, ijs nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jwrI kIqw igAw sI, auh is`K kOm dw pihlw isAwsI AYlwnnwmw sI[ hukmnwmy ivc is`KW nMU AwiKAw igAw sI, “gurU Arjn swihb jMnq ivc cly gey hn Aqy CyvyN gurU q^q ’qy bYT gey hn[ jo is`K gurU swihbwn dy dIdwry krn Awaux, auh Awpxy nwl isr& GoiVAW qy cMgy hiQAwrW dy qoh&y hI ilAwieAw krn”[1
ieiqhws ies g`l dI SwhdI Brdw hY ik gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI ny auprokq ivSy sMbMDI sMgqW nMU hukmnwmw jwrI kIqw, BwvyN ik ieh hukmnwmw ikDry ilKqI rUp ivc nhIN imldw, pr ies dy jwrI hox qy ivSy sMbMDI sMKyp jwxkwrI ieiqhwsk sroqW qoN imldI hY, ijvyN kvI sohx dI ilKq guriblws pwqSwhI CyvIN dIAW inmnilKq lweInW :

hwV ipRQm eykm iQq mwhI [
hir guibMd guru pwg bMDwhIN [
hukm nWvyN idn duqIA lKwey [
sRI guru dysin dys pTwey ]33]
dohrw ] AYsy bcn Xw mYN ilKy Byt SsqR hY ilAwie [
p`K idvs mYN Awie sB Xw mYN dyr n lwie ]35]

ies qoN sp`St hY ik gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI ny hukmnwmy ilKw ky ‘dysin dys’ Bwv v`K-v`K KyqrW ivc phuMcw id`qy qy AwdyS kIqw ik Ssqr Byt krn leI dyrI nhIN krnI[
ieiqhwsk qOr ’qy AsIN dyKdy hW ik fw: gMfw isMG qy SmSyr isMG ASok v`loN sMpwidq pusqkW ivc ‘hukmnwmw ^wlsw jI vloN’ dy isrlyK ADIn sRI Akwl q^q swihb dw hukmnwmw AMikq hY[ ieh hukmnwmw vYswK 3, sMmq 1816 muqwibk 12 ApRYl, 1759 nMU jwrI kIqw igAw[ ieh hukmnwmw smMUh vwsI ptx’ dy nwm hY[ ies hukmnwmy ivc 125/- rupey BweI idAwl isMG nMU dyx Aqy dsvMD qy kwr Bytw, jo kuJ gurU dy nimq hovy, dIpmwlw qoN lY ky Awaux dw AwdyS hY[ ies h`Q ilKq hukmnwmy dI pRwpqI nwl q^q swihbwn qoN hukmnwmy hox dI prMprw dI ieiqhwskqw svY-is`D hY[
q^q dI mirAwdw qy kwrjSIlqw nMU gurduAwry dy kwrj Kyqr nwloN inKyVdy hoey, igAwnI pRqwp isMG jI ilKdy hn[
“ieh cwry (pMj) ‘q^q’ gurduAwirAW dI swrI mirAwdw pUrn krdy hoey, iksy QW is`KI dI rhu-rIq bwry koeI SMkw pYdw ho jwvy, koeI Dwrimk jW smwijk sm`isAw KVI ho jwvy qW aus dw inrxw qy &Yslw krdy hn[ rihq-bihq dI pu`C-pVqwl krdy Aqy is`KI qoN piqq AwdmIAW nMU dMf vI dyNdy hn[”3
ies qoN vI sp`St hY ik is`KW dI rihq mirAwdw, Dwrimk, smwijk msilAW sMbMDI ‘gurU-pMQ’ v`loN inrxw lYx dw AiDkwr qKqW pws hY[ gurmiq ivcwrDwrw dy DwrxI, guris`K AKvwaux vwilAW pwsoN ‘gurmiq ivcwrDwrw’ dI hoeI aulMGxw, is`KI dI au~c Awqimk AvsQw qoN if`g cuikAW nMU vI syD qy nv-jIvn ‘q^qW’ qoN hI imldw hY[ ^wlsw pMQ dy pMj q^q hn qy ienHW ivcoN SRomxI q^q, sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN smyN-smyN hoey hukmnwimAW, AwdySw qy &YsilAW dI BrpUr jwxkwrI pRwpq huMdI hY[
pr ijvyN ik AsIN pihlw ilK c`ky hW ik hukmnwimAW qy nIswxW ’qy ijhVw kMm hoieAw hY, aus ivc sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jwrI hoey hukmnwimAW nMU Swml nhIN kIqw igAw, kyvl iek hI h`Q-ilKq hukmnwmy bwry aulyK hY[
igAwnI nwhr isMG ilKdy hn ik ipCly 58 swlW ivc sRI Akwl q^q swihb qy hor q^qW qoN pMj hukmnwmy4 jwrI hoey hn, ijnHW ivc iek hukmnwmw ikRpwn sMbMDI q^q hzUr swihb Abcl ngr, nMdyV qoN 1914 eI: ivc jwrI hoieAw qy bwkI cwr hukmnwimAW ivc aunHW sR: guridAwl isMG qy krqwr isMG bydI nMU qn^wh lwaux, bwbw KVk isMG nMU snmwinq krn qy bwbU qyjw isMG, bIbI inrMjn kOr nMU pMQ iv`coN ^wrj krn sMbMDI Swml kIqy hn[ igAwnI nwhr isMG ny ieh pusqk dsMbr, 1960 eI: ivc pRkwSq krvweI sI, pr hYrwnI hY ik igAwnI jI ies pusqk ivc hI 15 nvMbr, 1920 nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy pRqIinD iek`T bulwaux sMbMDI hukmnwmw pMnw 189 ’qy Swml kr cu`ky hn[ ies qrHW ieh igxqI pMj nhIN rihMdI[
ies qoN ielwvw 1939 eI: ivc jwq-pwq dy ivru`D mh`qvpUrn hukmnwmw sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jwrI ho cu`kw sI[ igAwnI pRqwp isMG dy kQn Anuswr, “12 kqk, 1936 ibkRmI (1879) nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy sRI drbwr swihb dy pujwrIAW ny sWJw ‘hukmnwmw’ jwrI kIqw ik swry is`K isMG sBw lihr nMU sPl bxwaux leI imlvrqx dyx[”5
isMG sBw lihr is`KW ivc nv-jwgrqI pYdw krn vwlI mh`qvpUrn lihr sI ijs dy h`k ivc q^q swihbwn vloN hukmnwmw jwrI krnw Dwrimk qy ieiqhwsk qOr ’qy bhuq mh`qvpUrn hY[ pr A&sos ik Aijhy mh`qvpUrn hukmnwimAW dI sMBwl nhI ho skI[ ies hukmnwmy dI Bwvnw dy pRqIkUl isMG sBw lihr dy AwgU pRo: gurmuK isMG nMU pMQ ivcoN ^wrj krn ‘hukmnwmw’ 18 mwrc, 1887 nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb qy sRI drbwr swihb dy pujwrIAW v`loN jwrI kIqw igAw, ijs nMU gurmiq mirAwdw dy pRqIkUl d`sidAW 25 dsMbr, 1995 nMU pRo: gurmuK isMG horW nUM Akwly clwxy auprMq ivSv is`K sMmyln smyN snmwinq kIqw igAw[
gurduAwrw pRbMD suDwr lihr dy mMqv nMU pUrw krn leI swry pMQ nMU jQybMd kr ky pMQ dI iek pRqIinD qy sWJI kmytI kwiem krn dI loV nMU pRqIq krky nvyN pRbMDkW dI mnSw muqwibk sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN iek hukmnwmw jwrI kIqw igAw ik swrw pMQ AijhI kmytI kwiem krn leI 15 nvMbr, 1920 nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy iek`qr hovy[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jwrI hoey hukm Anuswr smu`cw pMQ sRI Akwl q^q swihb ivKy hwzr hoieAw[ ies iek`T ivc pMj ipAwirAW dI cox kIqI geI, ijnHW ny SRomxI kmytI dy swry mYNbrW dI soD-suDweI krnI sI[ pMj ipAwry (1) sMq BweI qyjw isMG AYm.ey msqUAwxw, (2) BweI joD isMG AYm.ey., (3) bwbw hirikRSn isMG AYm,ey., (4) jQydwr BweI qyjw isMG, sYNtrl mwJw dIvwn, (5) srdwr blvMq isMG reIs k`lw sn[ 22 nvMbr, 1920 nMU ies kmytI dI pihlI iek`qrqw hoeI, aus idn pMj ipAwirAW ny kmytI dy iek hor mYNbr dI soD kIqI[ ienHW ivc sR: suMdr isMG mjITIAw vI Swml sn[ auprMq jdoN swry mYNbr pMj ipAwirAW dy nwl sRI Akl q^q swihb dy swhmxy sMgq ivc hwzr hoey Aqy mjITIAw jI ny, ijnHW sMbMDI aunHW dy srkwr dw ip`TU hox dw doS sI, pMj ipAwirAW dI AwigAw pw ky “hm Avguix Bry eyku guxu nwhI” Sbd pVHdy hoey Aiq inmrqw ivc sMgq nMU inScw idvwieAw ik aunHW jwx bu`J ky ‘gurU-pMQ’ dI Av`igAw kdy nhIN kIqI Aqy nw hI AgoN krngy[ sMgq ny gurU-pMQ dy b^iSMd hox dw ibrD pwldy hoey, aunHW nMU muAw& hI nhIN kIqw, sgoN aunHW nMU SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dw pihlw pRDwn cuixAw[6 ies qrHW is`KW dI pRmu`K jQybMdI SRomxI gurduAwrtw pRbMDk kmytI hoNd ivc AweI, jo A`j vI gurduAwirAW dy pRbMD ivc SRomxI sMsQW vjoN kwrjSIl hY[
‘nwnk inrml pMQ’ dy hoNd ivc Awaux smyN BwrqI smwj, Drm, jwq-pwq, vrx, vrg-vMf qy CUq-Cwq ivc vMifAw hoieAw sI[ gurU swihbwn ny mwnv brwbrI leI bulMd Awvwz ivc Dwrimk, smwijk nwbrwbrI dy ivru`D muihMm AwrMBI Aqy gurbwxI ivc jwq-pwq, vrg-vMf dw s^q SbdwvlI ivc KMfn kIqw[ gurmiq ivcwrDwrw nMU AmlI rUp ivc pRgt krn, brwbrqw, sWJIvwlqw qy BrwqrI-Bwv nMU rUpmwn krn leI ‘sMgq-pMgq’ dI sMsQw dI ArMBqw kIqI, ijs ivc ibnW iksy ivqkry, vKryvyN dy hr mwnv brwbrqw dw Aihsws mihsUs kr skdw hY[ gurbwxI dw sp`St AwdyS hY ik mnu`K dI jwq ‘jnm’ krky nhIN ‘krm’ krky hY Aqy swnMU iksy mnu`K dI jwq nhIN pu`CxI, sgoN ijs ‘joiq’ qoN mnu`K pYdw hoieAw hY, aus nwl juVnw cwhIdw hY :

jwxhu joiq n pUChu jwqI AgY jwiq n hy ]7
jW
jwiq jnmu nh pUCIAY sc Gru lyhu bqwie ]
sw jwiq sw piq hY jyhy krm kmwie ]8
pr A&sos ik jwq-pwq dI iBAwnk ibmwrI nw kyvl BwrqI smwj ivc hI hY, sgoN ‘gurU nwnk nwm-lyvw’ guris`K vI ies qoN bc nhIN sky[ is`K AKvwaux vwilAW jwq-pwq dI bmwrI nMU iqlWjlI dyx dI QW jwqW, goqW, ik`iqAW AwDwirq vMf krky Awpo-Awpxy gurduAwry auswrny SurU kr id`qy[ Swied ies smwijk ibmwrI nMU dUr krn leI hI sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN 13 jUn, 1939 nMU hukmnwmw jwrI hoieAw[ pr jwxy-Axjwxy A`j vI bhuq swry guris`K khwaux vwly gurmiq isDWq nMU Aml ivc pRgt krn leI jwrI hoey hukmnwmy dI pwlxw nhIN kr rhy[ ies dy kwrnW ’coN iek kwrn ieh vI ho skdw hY ik bhuq swry guris~KW nMU ies ieiqhwsk hukmnwmy dI jwxkwrI nw hovy[
gurmiq ivcwrDwrw nMU idRVH krwaux, guris`KI jIvn ivc AweI iFilAweI nMU dUr kr ky cVHdI klw dw jIvn bsr krn Aqy guris`KI jIvn ijaux, gurmiq ivcwrDwrw dy pRcwr-pRswr ivc Ain`KVvW Xogdwn pwaux vwlIAW gurU-dr qoN vrosoeIAW rUhW nMU ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ qoN mwx siqkwr vjoN pRsMsw-p`qr numw hukmnwmy b^iSS kIqy gey[
jo is`K ho ky sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI pRBUs`qw nMU pRvwn nhIN krdw, auh hmysw hI ^uAwr huMdy hn[ Asl ivc Pu`l ijvyN twhxI nwloN Al`g ho ky QoVy smyN ivc hI AwpxI ^uSboeI gvw, kumlw-su`k AwpxI hoNd-hsqI qoN h`Q Do bYTdw hY, ies qrHW hI is`K ‘gurU-pMQ’ dI pRqIinD srvau~c sMsQW sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy isDWq mirAwdw qoN tu`t ky ^uSIAW, KyiVAW qy cVHdI klw dy jIvn qoN h`Q do bYTdw hY[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy isDWq nwloN Al`g ho ky guris`K dI rUh kumlw jWdI hY, ^uSIAW, KyiVAW dI QW Awls, dil`dr qy ibmwrI lY lYNdI hY[ ieiqhws ivc AsIN dyKdy hW, kuJ smyN vwsqy qW kuJ iek guris`K AKvwaux vwly sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy isDWq qy pRMprw qoN AwkI hoey, pr jd aunHW dI jIvn-lIlHw nMU inrwsqw, Awls, dil`dr, ibmwrI Awid ny Gyr ilAw qW auh dyr-svyr ‘gurU-pMQ’ dI Srn Aw, iPr svYmwx qy siqkwr dw jIvn jIaux l`gy[
q^q swihbwn qoN smyN-smyN jwrI hoey hukmnwimAW qoN iek g`l bVI sp`St huMdI hY ik pMjW hI q^qW dy jQydwrW v`loN pMjW ipAwirAW dy rUp ivc iml-bYT ky &Ysly krn dI pRMprw nhIN rhI, sgoN sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jwrI hukmnwmy nMU dUsry q^qW qoN pRoVHqw, pRcwr-pRswr vjoN jwrI kIqw igAw[ ijvyN bwbU qyjw isMG qy bIbI inrMjx kOr nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN hukmnwmw jwrI krky 9 Agsq, 1928 nMU pMQ ivcoN Kwrz kIqw igAw[ ienHW A`Krw vwlI iebwrq vwlw hukmnwmw sRI kysgVH swihb qoN s`q BwdroN sM: nwnkSwhI 459 muqwibk 7 BwdroN sM: ibkRmI 1985 muqwibk 22 Agsq, 1928 nMU q^q swihb dI mohr l`g ky jwrI hoieAw [9
lgBg ies hI SbdwvlI ivc iehI hukmnwmw mwG dI sMgrWd, ibkRmI 1985, nwnkSwhI 459, 13 jnvrI, 1929 nMU sRI hzUr swihb qoN jwrI hoieAw, ijs ’qy pMjW isMGW dy dsq^q qy Ahudy drswey gey sn[
sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN smyN-smyN jwrI kIqy gey hukmnwimAW, AwdySw, sMdySW… nMU pVHn ivcwrn qoN bwAd ieh vI sp`St huMdw hY ik swry hI &Ysly ‘pMj ipAwirAW’ v`loN jwrI kIqy gey hn, hwlWik kuJ iek hukmnwimAW ’qy hukmnwmw jwrI krn leI jQydwr sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy hI dsq^q hn, pr ienHW hukmnwimAW dy SurU ivc ‘pMj ipAwirAW dy sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy iml-bYT ky ivcwrW krn auprMq ley gey &Ysly v`l sp`St sMkyq hY[ bhuq swry hukmnwimAW ’qy ‘pMj ipAwirAW’ dy bwkwiedw dsq^q hn[
aupRokq ieiqhwsk hvwilAW dy pRsMg ivc AsIN kih skdy hW ik ‘gurU-pMQ’ dy pRqIinDW vjoN pMj ipAwirAW vloN sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN hukmnwmy jwrI krn dw pMQk ivDwn qy prMprw hY[ gurmiq ivcwrDwrw dw DwrxI guris`K, sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jwrI hoey hukmnwimAW, AwdySW, sMdySW… nMU mMn, guris`K ‘gurU-pMQ’ pRqI irx-pUrqI krdy hn[

1. fw: hrijMdr isMG idlgIr, Akwl q^q swihb, pMnw 12. 2. igAwnI ieMdr isMG ig`l-kiv sohx jI, sRI guriblws pwqSwhI CyvIN, pMnw 150. 3. ig: pRqwp isMG, nvyN q^q bwry ivcwr, pMnw 3. 4. ig: nwhr isMG, AwzwdI dIAW lihrW, pMnw 289. 5. auhI, pMnw 189. 6. nrYx isMG, gurduAwrw pRbMD suDwr lihr, pMnw 16. 7. sRI gurU gRMQ swihb, pMnw 349 8. auhI, pMnw 1330. 9. ig: nwhr isMG, AwzwdI dIAW lihrW , pMnw 295.

pusqk ‘hukmnwmy AwdyS sMdyS… sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ ivcoN DMnvwid sihq[