Image

sRI Akwl q^q swihb

gurmiq ivcwrDwrw qy is`K ieiqhws sMbMDI jwxkwrI qd qk mukMml nhIN ho skdI, jd qk gurmiq ivcwrDwrw qy is`K ieiqhws dw ividAwrQI sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy isDWq, sMsQw qy ieiqhws qoN jwxU nhI ho jWdw pr A`j siQqI ieh hY, ik bhuqy is`K ividAwrQI vI sRI Akwl q^q swihb bwry iehI jwxdy hn ik sRI hirmMdr swihb dy swhmxy iek hor v`fw gurduAwrw hY, ijs nMU gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI ny bxvwieAw qy Bwrq srkwr ny jUn, 1984 ivc burI qrHW Fwh id`qw sI[ ‘q^q’ dw isDWq qy ieiqhws gurduAwry dI sMsQw qoN bhuq iBMn hY[ gurbwxI ivc ‘q^q’ Sbd dI vrqoN ‘q^q, qKqu, qKiq’ Awid v`K-v`K rUpW ivc hoeI hY[ ieh Sbd gurbwxI ivc lgBg 50 vwrI v`K-v`K ArQW ivc vriqAw igAw hY[ ‘q^q’ Sbd dy SbdI-ArQ bYTx dI cOkIN qy rwj isMGwsn dy kIqy imldy hn, Bwv auh QW ijQy bYT ky rwjw rwj dI kwrvweI nMU clwauNdw hY[ ies ArQ vwly bhuq swry ‘q^q’ dunIAW ’qy hoey qy smyN dI glvkVI ivc Aw ky Awpxw nwmo-inSwn imtw cu`ky hn, pr ijs rUp ivc ‘q^q’ Sbd dI vrqoN ‘gurmiq ivcwrDwrw’ ivc hoeI hY, auh ’q^q' nwSvwn nhIN sdIvIN hY, kwl dy Gyry ivc nhIN ‘Akwl’ hY, Bwv smyN sQwn dy pRBwv qoN suqMqr hY[ ‘q^q’ dy Aijhy isDWq nMU gurU swihbwn ny Awpxy jIvn-kwl ivc AmlI jwmw pihnwieAw qy ieh swbq kr id`qw ik ‘q^q’ iksy ivAkqI ivSyS dIAW rwjsI-KyqrI gqIivDIAW dw kyNdr nhIN, sgoN suqMqr, pRBUs`qw sMpMn sMsQw hY[ bhUq swry ieiqhwskwr gurU hirgoibMd jI dy smyN gurAweI dy rUp ivc Acwnk pirvrqn hoieAw vyKdy hn[ ienHW ieiqhwskwrW dw mq hY ik pihly gurU swihbwn dYvI Dwrimk nyqw sn qy ‘sMq’ Bwv Dwrimk pihrwvy ivc jIvn guzwrdy sn, pr gurU hirgoibMd jI v`loN ‘q^q’ dI isrjxw krnw, ‘s`cw-pwqSwh’ AKvwauxw, ‘mIrI-pIrI’ dIAW do ikrpwnW Dwrn krnw, ‘POjI krqv’ krnw Awid pirvrqn is`K Drm nMU v`Krw Drm sQwpq krn v`l rwjsI phuMc sI[ pr ieh ivcwr aunHW ieiqhwskwrW dy hn, jo gurbwxI, gurmiq ivcwrDwrw, is`K ieiqhws qy prMprw qoN Anjwx hn[ ‘q^q’, ‘s`cw pwqSwh’, ‘rwj drbwr’ Awid Sbd qW gurmiq ivc v`K-v`K pRkrxW ivc pihlW hI vrqoN ivc imldy hn, nw ik ienHW SbdW dI kwF qy vrqoN gurU hirgoibMd swihb dy smyN hoeI[ aukq vrqy gey SbdW dy ArQ gurmiq ivcwrDwrw Anuswr iksy qrHW vI KyqrI rwjsI ivcwrDwrw nwl sMbMiDq nhIN, sgoN ienHW SbdW dy ArQW dw dYvIkrx kIqw igAw hY[ gurU nwnk dyv jI ny Awpxy smyN lokweI ivc rwjsI, Dwrimk, smwijk qy siBAwcwrk ADogqI nMU AnuBv kr, ies nMU dUr krn dw BrpUr Xqn kIqw[ ies kwrj nMU AmlI jwmw pihnwaux leI aunHW ‘nwnk inrml pMQ’ dI ADwriSlw r`KI[ ieh ‘inrml pMQ’ inrol iek AiDAwqmk lihr hI nhIN sI, sgoN ieh Awid-AwrMB qoN BgqI-SkqI nMU iek dUsry dI hoNd leI zrUrI mMndw hY[ isDWq rUp ivc gurU nwnk swihb dw ‘bwbr’ nMU ‘jwbr’ kihxw, ies dw pihlw pRmwx sI[ ies isDWq Anuswr hI gurU AMgd swihb, bwdSwh hmwXMU nMU ‘qlvwr’ dI ‘smyN qy sQwn’ Anuswr vrqoN krn leI sucyq krdy hn[ gurmiq ivcwrDwrw Anuswr Awqimk suqMqrqw nMU smwijk suqMqrqw qoN v`K nhIN kIqw jw skdw[ ieh ivcwrDwrw aus smyN qy hux vI aunHW lokW nMU psMd nhIN, jo isr& A`K bMd kr ky, smwDIAW lgw ky, smwijk, rwjsI, Dwrimk muSklW v`loN mUMh Pyr ‘BgqI’ krn dw FoNg rcdy hn[ jykr gurmiq ivcwrDwrw ivc vI BgqI-SkqI nMU Al`g-Ql`g r`iKAw jWdw qW sMBv sI ik ivcwrDwrw vI bwkI suDwrk lihrW vWg AwpxI hoNd-hsqI qoN h`Q Do bYTdI[ gurU hirgoibMd jI ny ieh mihsUs kr ilAw sI ik jykr lokW nMU Dwrimk-isAwsI zwbrW-zwlmw qoN bMDn-mukq krwauxw Aqy aunHW ivc Awqm-ivSvws Brnw hY qW hkUmq dw fr mn qoN dUr krnw lwzmI hY[ gurU hirgoibMd swihb ny ies mMqv dI pUrqI leI sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI isrjxw kIqI, ijs dw isDWq qy suBwau sMswrI ‘q^qW’ qoN inrwlw hY[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI isrjxw nwl is`K kOm iek suqMqr qy pRBUs`qw sMpMn dYvI guxW ADwirq kOm dy rUp ivc pRgt hoeI[ ‘sI Akwl q^q swihb’ isDWq, sMsQw, ieiqhwsk ipCokV, isrjxw, auswrI, gqIivDIAW qy mirAwdw Awid iviSAW sMbMDI jykr ivcwr krn l`gIey qW ieh kwrj bhuq vfyrw hovygw[ kwrn ? hr ivSw Awpxy Awp ivc mukMml mzmUn hY, AsIN kyvl sMKyp rUp ivc ivcwr krnI hY[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI isrjxw ‘nwnk inrml pMQ’ dI ‘inrml ivcwrDwrw’ dw iek mh`qvpUrn pVwA hY[ is`K Drm dy ivkws qy sQwpqI ivc Akwl q^q swihb dI sMsQw ny mIl-p`Qr dw kwrj kIqw hY[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI isrjxw qoN pihlW sMgq-pMgq qy gurduAwry dIAW sMsQwvW dI isrjxw ho cu`kI sI[ BwvyN ik sMgq-pMgq qy Drmswl dy sMklp dI isrjxw gurU nwnk dyv jI ny kIqI qy gurU Arjn dyv jI hirmMdr swihb dI isrjxw kr, sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dw pRkwS kr, is`K Drm nMU ivl`Kx hoNd hsqI vwly Drm vjoN sQwipq kr cu`ky sn[ sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI dI Shwdq auprMq gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI Awpxy gurU-ipqw dyn AwdyS Anuswr gurAweI dI pdvI Dwrn kIqI qy mIrI-pIrI dIAW ikRpwnW Dwrn kIqIAW[ guriblws pwqSwhI CyvIN dy krqw sohx kvI Anuswr, “gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI mhwn au~Dm kr ky Akwl purK dI AwigAw muqwibk BweI gurdws qy bwbw bu`Fw jI nMU nwl lY hwV sudI pMcmI, 1663 muqwibk 1606 eI: nMU Akwl q^q dI nINh r`KI, ies dYvI q^q dI auswrI ivc iksy imsqrI dI shwieqw nhIN leI geI, swrI auswrI bwbw bu`Fw qy BweI gurdws jI rwhIN hoeI[ hwV pMcmI ko idn jwn [ sRI gur audm kIn mhwn ]35] gurdws bu`Fy ko lY inj swQ [ q^q ArMB kr dInw nwQ [… kr Ardws sRI siq gurU pun pRswid vrqwie ] ipRQm nINv sRI guru rKI Abcl q^q suhwie ]38] iksI rwj nih hwQ lgwXo [ bu`Fy AO gurdws bnwXo [1 ies qoN iek g`l sp`St hY ik sMsQwvW dI isrjxw ivc rwj-imsqrI jW kwrIgr nhIN, bilk kOmW dy bzurgvwr qy ivdvwn shweI huMdy hn Aqy sMsQwvW dI isrjxw ivc idn-mhIny nhIN, sgoN sdIAW l`g jWdIAW hn[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI isrjxw hox ’qy sRI hirmMdr swihb ivKy Awsw dI vwr dy Bog pYx auprMq sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy dIvwn sjdy, ijQy is`KW dy JgVy nij`Ty jWdy sn[ ies qrHW lwgly ipMfw dy lok Awpo Awpxy JgVy inptwaux leI gurU jI pws Awaux l`g pey[2 KusvMq isMG dy kQn Anuswr, “nOjvwn (gurU) hirgoibMd ny Awpxy ipqw dI QW leI qy mIrI-pIrI dIAW do qlvwrW Dwrn kIqIAW, ijnHW iv`coN iek AiDAwqimk qy dUsrI rwjsI SkqI dI pRqIk sI[ gurU hirgoibMd ny is`KW nMU ikhw ik auh SsqrW qy GoiVAW dIAW BytwvW nMU Dn dI Bytw nwloN qrjIh dyxgy[ aunHW ny hirmMdr swihb dy nzdIk hI ‘Akwl q^q’ (smyN qoN suqMqr prmwqmw dw q^q) auswirAw[ SWqI dy gIqW dI QW FwfI vwrW dw gwien SurU hoieAw[ gurU hirgoibMd swihb dy drbwr ivc dUsry rwijAw dy pRqIinD AwauNdy sn, ijnHW nMU SwhI snmwn id`qw jWdw sI[ ies qrHW hI gurU jI vI Awpxy pRqIinD dUjy rwijAW pws Byjdy sn”3 sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI isrjxw bwry isrdwr kpUr isMG ilKdy hn, “ieh Bwrq dy v`K-v`K ih`isAW ivc bxy q^qW ivcoN is`K Drm dw pRm`uK sQwn hY ijs dI sQwpnw CyvyN siqgurU hirgoibMd jI ny aus vyly kIqI, jdoN is`K Drm ny sp`St rUp ivc rwjnIqI qy smwijk sm`isAwvW bwry AwdyS dyxy AwrMB kIqy[ ieauN gurU hirgoibMd jI ny Bwrq dy mugl rwj nMU AsvIkwr kr ky is`KW dy pRBUs`qw sMpMn hox dw AYlwn kr id`qw[ ATwrHvIN, au~nIvIN qy vIhvIN sdI ivc is`K sMgq sRI Akwl q^q swihb ivKy ivSyS mOikAW au~pr iek`TI ho ky srb-sMmqI nwl kOmI &Ysly lYNdI rhI, ijnHW dI pwlxw krnI hr is`K leI zrUrI mMnI jWdI[4 isrdwr kpUr isMG dy aukq kQn qoN ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ dI isrjxw, isDWq qy sMsQw bwry keI nukqy sp`St huMdy hn[ ijvyN q^q dy kwrj Kyqr vjoN ieQy rwjsI qy smwijk sm`isAwvW bwry AwdyS krny, mugl rwj SkqI nMU ApRvwn kridAW, is`KW dy pRBUs`qw sMpMn hox dw AYlwn krnw Aqy iqMn-cwr sdIAW qoN ieQoN huMdy &YsilAW nUM hr is`K mMndw hY, q^q dy AiDkwr Kyqr nMU drswauNdw hY[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI isrjxw mugl hkUmq dIAW AiqAwcwrI nIqIAW dw mukwblw krn leI iek smWqr srkwr dy qu`l sI[ ieh smkwlI mugl hkUmq nMU iek pRq`K cunOqI sI[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI iemwrq dI auswrI mgroN gurU hirgoibMd swihb ny is`KW v`l hukmnwmy jwrI kIqy[ sRI Akwl q^q smUMh is`KW dI, srb`q ^wlsy dI iek srvoqm sMsQw hY[ ieh is`KW dy iksy iek Bwg dI AwjwrwdwrI sMsQw nhIN[… sRI Akwl q^q dw kwrj Kyqr smUMh is`KW dy ivSv ivAwpI Dwrimk, smwijk, rwjnIiqk srokwrW nwl hY, nw ik kyvl pMjwb dy is`KW dy iek vrg AkwlIAW dy vkqI srokwrW qk mihdUd nhIN[5 sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI nINh r~Kx Aqy pihlw hukmnwmw jwrI hox bwry sMKyp rUp jwxkwrI purwqn ieiqhwsk gRMQW qoN imldI hY[ gurU hirgoibMd jI dy 1635 eI: ivc krqwrpur cly jwx ’qy sRI hirmMdr swihb qy Akwl q^q swihb dw pRbMD ipRQI cMd dy pirvwr pws Aw igAw[ 1699 eI: ivc ^wlsy dI isrjxw auprMq BweI mnI isMG nUM ^wlsw pMQ vloN sRI hirmMdr swihb qy sRI Akwl q^q swihb dw pRbMD sucwrU FMg duAwrw clwaux leI ByijAw[ ibKVy simAW smyN ^wlsw pMQ dIvwlI, vYswKI ’qy srb`q ^wlsy dy rUp ivc sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy iml bYT ky pMQk kwrj krdw irhw[ srb`q ^wlsw jW ^wlsw pMQ dw jnrl iejlws sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy hox dI pMQk rvwieq hY[ pMQk rvwieq Anuswr hI 14 AkqUbr, 1745 eI: nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy srb`q ^wlsy dw iek`T hieAw, ijs ivc smu`cI pMQk SkqI nMU 25 jiQAW ivc jQybMd kIqw igAw[ 29 mwrc, 1748 eI: ivc hoey srb`q ^wlsy smyN ‘dl ^wlsy’ dI sQwpnw kIqI geI qy smu`cy pMQ nMU 11 imslW ivc vMifAw igAw[ 12 ApRYl, 1759 eI: ivc sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI mohr hyT ^wlsy jI vloN hukmnwmw jwrI kr ky sRI hirmMdr swihb dI auswrI vwsqy 125 rupey dI mMg kIqI[6 sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jwrI hoey hukmnwimAW ivcoN Swied ieh sB qoN purwqn pRwpq hukmnwmw hY[ 10 ApRYl, 1763 eI: nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy pMQ v`loN &Yslw kIqw ik ZrIb bRwhmx dI &irAwd ’qy aus dI pqnI nMU ksUr dy hwkm pwsoN CufwieAw jwvy[ 5 PrvrI, 1763 eI: nMU v`fw GlUGwrw vwpirAw, ijs ivc 20 qoN 30 hzwr dy krIb is`K b`cy, b`uFy qy nOjuAwn ShId hoey[ v`fy GlUGwry qoN vwps prqidAW AbdwlI ny sRI hirmMdr swihb qy sRI Akwl q^q swihb dIAW iemwrqW nMu Fwh id`qw[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy sQwn ’qy is`KW ny iek`qr ho ky AbdwlI qon bdlw lYx dw &Yslw kIqw[ vwps jWdy AbdwlI ’qy is`KW ny hmlw kr ky burI qrHW auKyV id`qw qy is`K iek vwr iPr pMjwb dy hwkm bx gey[ ijvyN ik AsIN pihlW ivcwr kIqI hY ik ‘q^q’ Sbd SkqI dw pRqIk hY[ pRq`K qOr ’qy A`j vI jd AsIN ‘gurU pMQ’ nwl sMbMDq q^qW dy drSn krdy hW qW sRI Akwl q^q swihb, q^q sRI kysgVH swihb, q^q sRI hirmMdr swihb jI ptnw swihb Aqy q^q s`cKMf sRI hzUr swihb nMdyV, ivKy aucycy qOr ’qy SkqI dy pRqIq SsqrW nMU suMdr FMg duAwrw pRdrSq kIqy hoieAw dyKdy hW[ ienHW ‘q^qW’ ’qy sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dy pRkwS Al`g QwvW ’qy hn[ q^q sRI dmdmw swihb, ijs nMU ‘gurU-pMQ’ ny bwAd ivc ‘q^q’ vjoN mwnqw pRdwn kIqI, auQy hI kyvl SsqrW nMU pihly q^qW dI qrHW pRdrSq nhIN kIqw igAw, pr ies q^q nMU ‘gurU kWsI’ hox dw mwx-siqkwr hwsl hY[ sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dI pwvn bIV sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI ny ies pwvn DrqI ’qy bYT ky hI dubwrw ilKvweI qy gurU qyZ bhwdr swihb dI pwvn bwxI ies ivc AMikq kIqI[ ies pwvn AsQwn qoN hI sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dIAW pwvn bIVW h`Q-ilKq ilKx dI iprq sQwpq hoeI[ q^q sRI dmdmw swihb ’qy vI kuJ iek ieiqhwsk Ssqr suSoiBq hn, ijnHW nMU suMdr AlmwrI ivc pRdrSq kIqw igAw hY[ ^wlsw pMQ dy pMjw hI q^qW ’qy ieiqhwsk SsqrW dy drSn smgqW nMU rojwnw nym nwl krvwey jWdy hn Aqy nwl hI sMKyp ieiqhws d`isAw jWdw hY qW ju is`K sMgqW Awpxy gOrvmeI ieiqhwsk ivrsy qoN pRyrxw pRwpq kr mwx mihsUs kr skx[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb dw is`Dw sMbMD guris`KW nwl hY[ gurduAwry sB dy sWJy hn, gurduAwry iksy smyN koeI vI by-rok tok Aw skdw hY, pr q^qW qy insicq AsQwn ’qy kyvl AMimRqDwrI pUrn guris`K hI jw skdy hn[ gurduAwirAW vWg q^qW ’qy hryk mnu`K dI Ardws bynqI ho skdI hY, pr piqq, qnKwhIey is`KW dI Ardws nhIN ho skdI qy nw hI anHW nMU ‘q^q swihb’ ’qy jwx dI AigAw hY[ Akwl q^q swihb dI ivauNqbMdI SwhI q^qW vrgI hY, pr ies dw kwrj Kyqr nw ho ky smu`cw ivSvivAwpI is`K BweIcwrw hY[ hryk qrHW dy pMQk mwmilAW dw AMqm &Yslw Akwl q^q swihb ’qy hI huMdw hY[ kOmI p`Dr ’qy sRI Akwl q^q swihb is`K Dwrimk, smwijk, rwjsI qy siBAwcwrk Awid msilAW ivc ‘gurU-pMQ’ dI srv smr`Q pRBUs`qw sMpMn sMsQw hY[ smW BwvyN muglW, muslmwnW, AMgryjW jW BwrqI hwkmW dw hovy, jbr-julm dy i^lw& ieQoN hukm pRwpq kr ky, guris`K moricAW ivc gey, Akih qy Asih qsIhy pRwpq krdy hoey ShId hoey, zmInW-jwiedwdW kurk krvweIAW, pr Akwl q^q swihb qoN hoey hukm nMU ip`T nhIN idKweI[ ATwrHvIN, au~nIvIN qy vIhvIN sdI dw smu`cw is`K ieiqhws Akwl q^q swihb dy duAwly GumMdw hY[ SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI, sRI AMimRqsr dI sQwpqI, AkwlI lihr dI auqpqI qy ivkws dw kyNdr ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ hI irhw hY[ jykr ieh kih ilAw jwvy ik is`K dI hoNd-hsqI sRI Akwl q^q swihb nwl juVI hY, qW ies ivc AiqkQnI nhIN hovygI[ ieiqhws ivc AsIN dyKdy hW ik ijs vI guris`K AKvwaux vwly ny ‘Akwl q^q swihb’ nMU ip`T idKweI, AwpxI hoNd-hsqI qoN h`Q Do bYTw[ is`KW dy pihly bwdSwh bwbw bMdw isMG bhwdr dI Shwdq auprMq is`K ieiqhws dy ivkws kRm ivc koeI AijhI mh`qvpUrn gqIivDI nhIN imldI, ijs ivc sRI Akwl q^q swihb dw muK rol nw hovy[ ^ws krky ATwrHvIN sdI dy pihly dhwikAW qoN lY ky vrqmwn smyN qk hr iksm dy Dwrimk, smwijk qy rwjsI vwd-ivvwdW dw h`l sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy hI hoieAw[ ijvyN ik au~pr ivcwr kr cu`ky hW ik sRI Akwl q^q swihb dw sMbMD ^ws krky is`KW nwl hY[ hryk is`K sdvwaux vwlw, jo gurmiq dI ivcwrDwrw nMU mMndw hovy, ’qy sRI Akwl q^q swihb dw hukm lwgU huMdw hY[ is`K ho ky auh sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy hukm dw ivroD nhIN kr skdw[ ieiqhwsk qOr ’qy AsIN dyKdy hW ik v`K-v`K pwrtIAW, jQybMdIAW, sBw-suswietIAW nwl sMbMiDq guris`K dyr-svyr sRI Akwl q^q swihb dy hukm A`gy isr Jukw sur^rU hoey[ mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy smyN rwjnIiqk &Ysly lwhOr huMdy sn, pr is`KI dy Dwrimk &Ysly sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy hI huMdy sn[ ieQoN qk ik smyN dy bwdSwh mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG nMU iek doS bdly sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy iemlI dy dr`^q nwl bMnH ky korVy mwrn dI Dwrimk szw id`qI geI, jo aunHW ^usI-^usI pRvwn kIqI[ is`K rwj dy bwAd vI is`KI nwl sMbMD r`Kx vwly bhuqy &Ysly sRI Akwl q^q swihb ’qy hI huMdy rhy[ 1920 eI: ivc gurduAwrw pRbMD suDwr lihr dy AwrMB ivc SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI kwiem krn leI pihlw hukmnwmw7 jQydwr sRI Akwl q^q swihb ny hI jwrI kIqw[ ieiqhws ies g`l dI vI SwhdI Brdw hY, ik is`K ivroDIAW nMU vI sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI pRBUs`qw A`gy iek smyN Jukxw ipAw[ sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI nMU ShId krvw dyx qoN ip`CoN, bwdSwh jhWgIr ny gurU hirgoibMd swihb jI nUM ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ dI isrjxw krn dy kwrn hI DoKy nwl id`lI bulw ky, gvwlIAr dy iklHy ivc bMd krn dw b`jr AprwD kIqw, pr jd aus nMU kIqy gunwhW qy ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ dI dYvI pRBUs`qw dw Aihsws hoieAw qW aus ny ^ud mw&I mMgidAW, Awpxy ^rcy ’qy sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI iemwrq bxwaux dI pySks kIqI, ijs nMU gurU jI ny Tukrw id`qw[ dUsrI audwhrx swnMU vrqmwn smyN dI hI imldI hY, jd jUn, 1984 ivc smyN dI bwbrSwhI srkwr ny ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ dI piv`qr ieiqhwsk iemwrq nMU bMbW-goilAW nwl Fwhux dw b`jr gunwh kIqw qy iPr pScwqwp vjoN dyS dI pRDwn mMqrI id`lIEN c`l, ieQy AweI qy AYlwn kIqw ik srkwr ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ dIO iemwrq nMU bxw ky dyvygI[ srkwr ny srkwrI syvw rwhIN iemwrq auswr vI id`qI, pr ‘gurU-pMQ’ ny aus nMU ApRvwn krdy hoey, iPr igrw id`qw[ kOm nMU auh Akwl q^q pRvwn nhIN sI Aqy Swied iksy vI AxKIlI kOm nMU ieh pRvwn nw hovy, ijs ivc ieho ijhy idhwVIdwr mzdUr l`gy hox, ijnHW kol SrDw, ivSvws, lgn Aqy ieSk dy s`cy kOl iekrwr nw hox[8 ieiqhws ies g`l dI SwhdI vI Brdw hY ik jdoN kdI vI ‘inrml pMQ’ dy doKIAW ny ‘is`K kOm’ dw nwmo inSwn imtwx dw Xqn kIqw, aunHW sB dw pihlw inSwnw ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ hI bxdw irhw[ ies sMsQw-numw isDWq nMU ^qm krn leI 1746, 1756, 1762… qy iPr jUn, 1984 ivc ies dI iemwrq Fwh ky ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ nMU ^qm krn dw Xqn kIqw, pr hwkm SRyxIAW dy lok Bu`l jWdy hn ik ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ kyvl iek iemwrq dw hI nW nhIN, sgoN ieh qW iek pRBUs`qw sMpMn sMsQw hY, ijs dw invws ies nMU mMnx vwly guris`KW dy ihridAW ivc hY, ijs nMU nw muZl, nw muslmwn qy nw hI smyN dIAW srkwrW ^qm kr skxgIAW[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN hI smyN-smyN gurU-Gr dy ivroDIAW, smwijk, rwjsI byiensw&IAW, jbr-zulm dy i^lw& qy gurduAwirAW dy pRbMD suDwr, is`KI dy pRcwr-pRswr ih`q is`K ih`qkwrI lihrW auTdIAW rhIAW[ ‘sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ dy isDWq qy ieiqhws qoN pRyrxw pRwpq kr, AnykW guris`K KMfy-bwty dI pwhul pRwpq kr, gurU-pMQ nMU smripq hoey[ Aijhy smrpx dIAW audwhrxW qW swnMU 20vIN sdI dy qIsry dhwky smyN dIAW vI imldIAW hn[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jdoN AwzwdI leI inh`Qy isMGW dy jQy quirAw krdy sn qW AMgryz hkUmq dIAW fWgW Q`k jWdIAW sn, pr lhU-luhwx hoey isMG iPr auTdy sn, A`gy vDdy sn, pr h`Q nhIN sn cu`kdy[ su`cy ^Un ivc l`Q-p`Q ienHW isMGW dy ijsmW nMU vyK ky iek idn iek AMgryz pwdrI sI. AYP, AYNfiraUz ny A`KW ivc A`QrU ilAw ky ikhw sI, “A`j mYN keI XsU msIh mrdy (sUlI cVHdy) vyKy ny[“ 9 sRI Akwl q^q swihb smyN qy sQwn dy pRBwvW qoN suqMqr hY[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb pRBUs`qw sMpMn sMsQw hox krky ieQoN hoey hukmnwmy, AwdyS jW &Ysly nMU mMnx vwilAW ny ^uSI-^uSI pRvwn kIqw[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN suxweI geI Dwrimk szw dw Asl mnorQ ‘iksy doSI nMU doSI bxw ky’ aus dw inrwdr krnw nhIN sgoN ivAkqI ivSyS ivc AweI vkqI kmjorI, isDWqk iFilAweI nMU dUr kr ky aus nMU mn-bcn krm qoN piv`qr bxwauNidAW, cVHdI klw dw jIvn pRdwn krnw hY[ ies piv`qr Bwvnw qihq hI gurU-pMQ vloN sR: subyg isMG, j`sw isMG rwmgVHIey, Syry pMjwb mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG, pMQ-rqn mwstr qwrw isMG, sMq &qih isMG, jQydwr jgdyv isMG qlvMfI, swbkw muK mMqrI sR: surjIq isMG brnwlw, swbkw kyNdrI mMqrI bUtw isMG, inhMg muKI bwbw sMqw isMG Awid pMQk lIfrW; fw: ipAwr isMG, fw: ipSOrw isMG Awid vrgy is`K ividvwnW nMU qn^wh lweI geI[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN Dwrimk-smwijk Av`igAw krn vwly guris`KW nMU kyvl qn^wh hI nhIN lweI jWdI, smyN-smyN gurU-pMQ nMU smripq ividvwn lyKkW, pMQk Dwrimk S^sIAqW nMU ivSyS mwx-snmwx qy pdvIAW vI pRdwn huMdIAW rhIAW, ijnHW bwry Awm lokW nMU bhuq G`t jwxkwrI hY[ imldI jwxkwrI Anuswr sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN pMQ dy pRis`D kvI, ividvwn lyKk BweI sMqoK isMG, pMQ dy byqwj bwdSwh bwbw KVk isMG, BweI swihb BweI rxDIr isMG, BweI swihb BweI hirBjn isMG XogI (AmrIkw) qy isrdwr kpUr isMG Awid nwmvr S^sIAqW nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN mwx-snmwn pRwpq krn dw suBwg pRwpq hoieAw,pr ienHW S^sIAqW nMU kdoN, iks krky qy iks qrHW snmwinq kIqw igAw, Awm AwdmI nMU jwxkwrI nhIN[ BweI sMqoK isMG jI jd sRI hirmMdr swihb jI dI AMqm Xwqrw ’qy Awey, qW kvI jI gRMQ smwpq kr ky Awpxy lVky bldyv isMG qy prIvwr smyq sRI AMimRqsr Awey[ Aw ky Awpxw gRMQ igAwnI gurmuK isMG (jo igAwnI sMqw isMG dy spu`qr sn) dI mwr&q ‘Akwl buMgy’ (Akwl q^q swihb) pyS kIqw[ ies gRMQ pr Awp nMU q^q swihb vloN snmwn pRwpq hoieAw[10 ieh sMKyp ijhI jwxkwrI BweI sMqoK isMG jI nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN snmwinq hox sMbMDI pRwpq huMdI hY[ BweI sMqoK isMG jI ny gur pRqwp sUrj gRMQ sMmq 1990 (julweI, 1844 eI:) dy swvx mhIny ivc sMpUrn kIqw qy iqMn ku mhIny ip`CoN Akwl clwxw kr gey[ ies ihswb nwl aunHW nMU 1844 eI: dy nyVy-qyVy snmwinq kIqw igAw hovygw[ ies qoN vDyry jwxkwrI pRwpq nhIN ho skI, pr iek g`l sp`St hY ik ividvwnW, ieiqhwskwrW, lyKkW Awid nMU snmwinq krn dI iprq pihlw qoN hI sQwpq sI[ iesy qrHW ‘nYSnl pRo&Ysr Aw& is`Kiezm’ dI pdvI nwl snmwinq isrdwr kpUr isMG dy snmwn sMbMDI jwxkwrI, aunHW dIAW ilKqW qy aunHW sMbMDI ilKqW ’coN vI pRwpq nhIN huMdI[ jykr QoVI bhuqI jwxkwrI imldI hY qW auh smkwlI A^bwrW ’coN[ rojwnw AjIq ivc pRkwSq ^br qy sMpwdkI lyK qoN swnMU inmnilKq jwxkwrI pRwpq ho skI hY: “13 AkqUbr, 1973 nMU svyry 7 vjy isrdwr kpUr isMG nMU sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN jQydwr swDU isMG BOrw v`loN ‘nYSnl pRo&Ysr Aw& is`Kiezm’ dI pdvI pRdwn kIqI geI[ ies pdvI dI ilKq cWdI dy suinhrI cOKty vwly p`qry ’qy hY[ ies pdvI dy nwl aunHW nMU ikrpwn qy isropw vI id`qw igAw[ Swm nMU cwr vjy gurU nwnk invws dy hwl ivc aunHW dw svwgq qy snmwn kIqw igAw qy Swndwr cwh-pwrtI id`qI geI[11 ies mOky ’qy SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMD kmytI dy pRDwn jQydwr gurcrn isMG tOhVw ny sMKyp ijhI qkrIr krdy hoey d`isAw ik ividvwnW nMU snmwnx dI pRMprw sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI mhwrwj dI clweI hoeI hY qy SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI ny aunHW dy pUrinAW ’qy c`ldy hoey hI ieh &Yslw kIqw hY[ ies qoN ielwvw bhuq hI mh`qqw vwly Dwrimk-smwijk &Ysly smyN-smyN sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN ley gey, ijvyN gurbwxI dI Su`Dqw qy iekswrqw; gurduAwirAW dy sucwrU pRMbD; SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dI kwiemI; gurbwxI dI CpweI; sRI Akwl q^q swihb dI nv-auswrI; srb`q ^wlsw; sMswr is`K sMmyln; ivSv is`K sMmyln; sMgq-pMgq; mYirj pYlsW; mVHIAW; kbrW ’qy sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dy pRkwS sMbMDI; sRI hirmMdr swihb ’c syvw; jwq-pwq; BrUx h`iqAw; inqnym dIAW bwxIAW; gurU-fMm Awid sMbMDI &Ysly izkrXog hn[

1. sohx kvI, guriblws pwqSwhI CyvIN, pMny 150-151. 2. igAwnI igAwn isMG, qvwrIK gurU ^wlsw, pMnw 411. 3. KusvMq isMG, ihstrI Aw& isKz, pMny 63-64. 4. fw: gurSrnjIq isMG (Anuvwdk), isrdwr kpUr isMG dy coxvyN lyK, pMnw 37. 5. fw: jsbIr isMG AwhlUvwlIAw, sRI Akwl q^q swihb, pMnw 88. 6. fw: gMfw isMG, hukmnwmy, pMny 232-33. 7. igAwnI pRqwp isMG, gurduAwrw suDwr lihr, pMnw 5. 8. gurmiq pRkwS, mwrc 1994 pMnw 21. 9. auhI pMnw 20. 10. fw: ikrpwl isMG, (sMpw), BweI vIr isMG dI ieiqhwsk rcnw, pMny 292-93. 11. rojwnw AjIq, jlMDr, 14 AkqUbr, 1973, sMpwdkI pMnw[

pusqk ‘hukmnwmy AwdyS sMdyS… sRI Akwl q^q swihb’ ivcoN DMnvwid sihq[